The Natural Edge Project The Natural Advantage of Nations Whole System Design Factor 5 Cents and Sustainability Higher Education and Sustainable Development




"In setting a time-horizon of 50 years - two generations into the future - it was found that ten to twenty-fold eco-efficiency improvements will be needed to achieve meaningful reductions in environmental stress. It was also found that the benefits of incremental technological development could not provide such improvements."
Leo Jensen, Chairman, Dutch Inter-ministerial Sustainable Technology Development Program 2000





The Natural Advantage of Nations (Vol. I): Business Opportunities, Innovation and Governance in the 21st Century

 
 

Section 4: Sustainable Cities - the Challenge of the 21st Century

 

1 Building positive examples
2 The significance of greening the building and development industry
3 Perceived barriers to change
3.1 Information failures
3.2 Market failures
3.3 Institutional failures
4 From pioneers to systemic change: cultural reform
4.1 Information reform
4.2 Market reform
4.3 Institutional reform
5 Rating schemes
6 Design practice reform
6.1 Design process elements
6.2 Residential buildings
6.3 The future in design approaches
7 Summary
8 Reference List from the Book
Sample of Resources to Support Chapter 18
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Inspiring Case Studies of Greening the Built Environment Down Under

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Online Databases
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Greening the Built Environment Organisations
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Greening the Built Environment: Further Reading

 

This chapter has been developed by lead author and The Natural Edge Project (TNEP) Secretariat member, Cheryl Paten. Mentoring and assistance was gratefully received from Alan Pears, co-director of environmental consultancy Sustainable Solutions and an Adjunct Professor in Environment and Planning at RMIT University in Melbourne, Dr Janis Birkeland editor of Design for Sustainability and the team from TNEP. Cameron Hoffmann is also acknowledged for his guidance on the chapter and a number of contributions included in the text. Working Group member Kate West is thanked for her review and comments during early chapter development. The editorial team would like to thank Bob Cameron for contributing some text and case study material. Thank you also to the organizations mentioned in the text, most of whom provided extra insight into the case studies.

Cheryl Paten, TNEP Education Coordinator,

 

 

Mentoring and assistance was gratefully received

from Alan Pears and Janis Birkeland.

There are many well-documented examples of how our ancestors successfully used their surroundings to sculpt sustainable built environments. Attention to natural energy flows and to the properties of local materials was rewarded with comfortable shelters and small ecological footprints. However, over a time span of a few decades communities around the world have lost, or 'misplaced' much of their cultural knowledge. This has led to the adoption of many 'standard' practices that are not necessarily suited to the local context. While case studies demonstrate that architecture, planning, design and materials are all undergoing 'dramatic sustainability breakthroughs', why is our built environment generally becoming less comfortable and more resource hungry?

 


Inspiring Case Studies of Greening the Built Environment Down Under

 

The Project Secretariat team with one of our supporters
Martin Jackson (Currumbin Ecovillage).

 

Ecovillage at Currumbin (Landmatters)

The Ecovillage at Currumbin is a world's best practice sustainable development vision turned reality for developer, Landmatters - Chris Walton and Kerry Shepherd .  Located on Australia's Gold Coast in the south-east corner of Queensland, the 110 hectare site occupies a diversity of land types and addresses a number of historical and cultural issues associated with the land ( more... ).  With a plan for 144 homes, the project incorporates initiatives such as traffic minimisation, prohibiting dogs and cats to protect native wildlife, on-site water management (without connection to the municipal supply), energy-efficient design and the use of renewable energy. In 2002, it was recognised as part of the Queensland EPA and UDIA Sustainable Urban Development Program which promotes innovation in urban design. 

An Interpretive Centre has been established to promote and showcase sustainable practices and awareness - visitors can learn how to live more sustainably in their own existing homes or live within the Ecovillage. The Centre was officially opened on 6 December 2005 by Queensland Premier Peter Beattie.  

View Website

 

The Byron at Byron

Situated on a 45-acre site only 5 minutes south from Byron Bay (Northern New South Wales) near Tallow Beach, The Byron at Byron is an environmentally sensitive five star resort. Built under the supervision of New South Wales' first popularly elected green Mayor, the development has a colourful history of addressing social and environmental concerns on and around the site. The Secretariat on tour with Hunter Lovins in 2005, were graciously hosted by owner operators John and Lyn Parché.

 

743 Ann Street: PMM Building (Case Study in Chapter)

The PMM building on 743 Ann Street Brisbane is a fully refurbished office building incorporating over 50 sustainability features.

View Video (wmv 3MB)

 

Australian Conservation Foundation

Natural Advantage: A Blueprint for a Sustainable Australia was launched by the Governor-General in October 2000 and gives government, business and the community an optimistic and prosperous vision for Australia . An online companion of case studies with links to further information was provided. See Chapter 21 Liveable Cities Case Study Folder for numerous Australian case studies and databases

View Website

 

30 Bond Building - Bovis Lend Lease

Lend Lease's new Sydney headquarters represents a total commitment to ecologically sustainable development (ESD) principles. The Sustainable Energy Development Authority (SEDA) has awarded the design five stars under the Australian Building Greenhouse Rating scheme. The use of chilled beam technology and naturally ventilated/mixed mode spaces significantly enhance indoor environment quality and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. 30 The Bond features the use of chilled beams for the first time in a large-scale commercial building in Australia.The local project team was able to gain an understanding of the technology from Bovis Lend Lease's European colleagues who are experienced in its design and application. The building design provides 30% lower CO2 emissions than a typical office building. The building features a façade with naturally ventilated sunrooms. People working on each level will have access to naturally ventilated spaces, external terrace/balconies or both. Sydney 's climate will allow the sunrooms to operate for up to 50-60% of the year as naturally ventilated. This contributes to the overall reduction in green house emissions. Rainwater is also collected on a portion of the roof and stored for irrigation to maximise water conservation.

View Website

 

 

'National@Docklands'- VIC

National@Docklands is an innovative example of commitment to creating a sustainable workplace. Just like Lend Lease's new headquarters

in Sydney , 30 The Bond, the National @ Docklands has no offices and all

employees have equal access to facilities. The building also incorporates a range

of ecologically sustainable features and scored a 4.3 star energy rating in the

'whole of building' category in the Australian Building Greenhouse Rating scheme and is rated 4.4 stars for its fit-out.

View WebSite

 

 

The 60L Greenbuilding

Another example of Green Building design in Australia is the 60L Building in Melbourne, a 2003 Banksia award winner. "60L is the leading example of green commercial building in Australia , demonstrating to the property industry that minimising a building's impact on the environment can be commercially viable. 60L's innovation is in the broad range of sustainability objectives, implemented to a high degree and resulting in an attractive, healthy building."

View Website

 

 

The Sydney Olympic Stadium

The Sydney Olympic Stadium, Village set new standards in Australia for Greening the Built Environment leading to worldwide interest

View Website

 

 

The University Of Newcastle

The University Of Newcastle , NSW is also a great example of the benefits of a holistic approach to the development. A remarkable series of ESD (ecologically Sustainable) Buildings demonstrate an economic and practical approach while breaking new ground in architectural excellence and environmental performance. The Rocky Mountain Institute has described this succession of new buildings and approach to the management of the natural environment as "Probably the most significant succession of sustainable buildings anywhere in the world" (Huston Eubank November 1999). These buildings are complimented by sensitive landscape and management techniques, including the LandSoft Catchment management system, which represent significant progress in maintaining remnant Australian Bushland in a heavily populated urban context.

View Website

 

 

Council House 2 (CH2) - The City of Melbourne

"Council House 2 (CH2) - The City of Melbourne has been awarded six Green Stars for the design of its 10-storey office building Council House 2 (CH2), which is due for completion by end-2005. CH2 is the first building design to be awarded six stars under the Green Star - Office Design rating tool."

View Website

 

 

Canberra International Airport

"has achieved many Australian firsts in environmentally sustainable development and facility management including the prestigious rating of first Five Green Star building in Australia . Our green vision extends to every facet of the Airport with particular attention to recycling and minimising energy consumption and results most evident in the development of Brindabella Business Park, Australia 's greenest business park and a leader in ecologically viable building practices."

View Website

 

 

Darebin City Council - Leading In Sustainability VIC

The Reservoir Civic Centre (RCC) opened in August 2003 demonstrates Darebin City Council's commitment to sustainability and is growing into a key community educational resource. The building's design, construction and operation are based on the principles of environmental sustainability, building social capital and financial responsibility. The active participation and work of the community, environmental experts, the design and project management team, consulting engineers, RCC staff and users collectively has created a building that:

- Saved 500 tonnes of waste going to landfill during construction.

- Diverted 94% of the building demolished on the site prior to construction.

- Will continue to reduce waste through the active on-site recycling and the purchase of reusable, recyclable products.

- Will save 60% on water use and 50% on energy use per year, as compared to a similar conventional building.

View PDF

 

 

City of Melville - Piney Lakes Environmental Education Centre

The Piney Lakes Environmental Education Centre is a unique environmental centre that now offers the community access to education and demonstration facilities covering the environment alternative renewable energy technologies for waste treatment and water treatment. The building provides a working example of an educational facility serviced by sustainable technology. One of the main features of the centre is the fact that it is not connected to Mains Electricity, water supply or sewage. All of these services are generated or supplied from renewable energy sources thus making the building truly "green". The Piney Lakes Environmental Education Centre is arguably the best practical demonstration of a sustainably designed facility in Australia .

View Website

 

 

DPI Queenscliff - A Sustainable Building for a Sustainable Future in Marine Research - VIC

The Department of Primary Industries (DPI) employed its Ecologically Sustainable Design and Construction initiative to develop a truly innovative and world-leading Marine Research Centre at Queenscliff. The success of DPI Queenscliff is highlighted by an independent report that indicates a Six Green Star rating is achievable pending formal certification by the Green Building Council of Australia.

View Website

 

 

Naragebup: A Sustainability Icon - WA

Evolving from community demand the Naragebup Community Centre was coordinated by a group of environmentally passionate community members in 1995. From these members a vision unfolded of a large, purpose built facility manifesting the principles of sustainable living. The result is an extraordinary building, run by an extraordinary organisation achieving innovative sustainability education.

View Website

 

 

The EcoHouse Project - VIC

The EcoHouse Project is a community inspired initiative that has transformed the Port Phillip EcoCentre site in St. Kilda Botanical Gardens into a model of urban sustainable design. The EcoHouse tangibly demonstrates a wide range of sustainable technologies and methods for energy and water efficiency for existing and new dwellings.

View Website

 

 

Newcastle , Greenhouse Champion

Newcastle , birthplace of the Australian coal industry, is now recognised as a world leading local government on greenhouse issues. A good summary of the city's achievements can be found on Radio National's Earthbeat's transcripts. The Newcastle City Council has established the Australian Municipal Energy Improvement Facility "to prepare Newcastle and the Hunter Region for its future in greenhouse action technology and to provide Australian Councils with a local government based greenhouse action knowledge interchange".

View Website

 

 

Online Databases

 

Ecospecifier (RMIT, Australia )

Ecospecifier is a knowledge base of over 1000 environmentally preferable products, materials and resources. Linking independent information with a powerful search interface, ecospecifier does your materials research for you, delivering innovative solutions with a unique difference. Designed to help designers, builders, consultants and those looking to deliver a best practice design, ecospecifier can help reduce environmental impacts and create healthier and more productive living and working environments. View Website

 

Green Building Supplies ( USA ) View Website

 

Meta-Efficient Building related products ( USA ) View Website

 

City of Seattle

Case Studies of how Greening the Built Environment has multiple benefits such as improving the Productivity of the business from the USA .

View Website

 

Rocky Mountain Institute, Colorado USA

Case Studies of Greening the Built Environment in Europe

View Website

 

Green Building Sources: This freely downloadable listing from RMI provides a thorough overview of key publications, key online resources, CD ROMS, training material to assist the Greening of the Built Environment.

View PDF

 

Further papers by the Rocky Mountain Institute on the Business Case for Greening the Built Environment .

View Website

 

 

Greening the Built Environment Organisations

 

Green Development Organisations in the USA

View Website

 

Australian Green Development Forum

To accelerate the adoption of sustainable practices in the Australian building and development industry. The Australian Green Development Forum is a balanced, non-profit coalition of members from development industries, government organisations and community groups. It is endorsed by industry and environmental bodies, and is aligned to community sectors that also have an interest in fostering sustainable development.

View Website

Australian CRC for Construction Innovation

The Cooperative Research Centre for Construction Innovation is a national research, development and implementation centre focused on the needs of the property, design, construction and facility management sectors. Established in 2001 and headquartered at Queensland University of Technology as an unincorporated joint venture under the Australian Government's Cooperative Research Program, Construction Innovation is developing key technologies, tools and management systems to improve the effectiveness of the construction industry. Underpinning Construction Innovation is the most significant commitment ever made to construction research in Australia - a seven year $14M Commonwealth grant and $50M in industry, research and other government funding. More that 300 individuals are participating and an impressive alliance of 19 leading partner organisations are involved in and support the activities of Construction Innovation.

View Website

 

Australian Green Building Council

The Green Building Council of Australia's mission is to define and develop a sustainable property industry in Australia and to drive the adoption of green building practices through market-based solutions. The Council's objective is to promote sustainable development and the transition of the property industry to implementing green building programs, technologies, design practice and operations. To do this, the Green Building Council is developing a national suit of green building rating tools called 'Green Star', it is also calling for economic incentives, government initiatives and programs to facilitate the adoption of new technologies and access to new knowledge.

View Website

 

Australian Council of Infrastructure and Development (AusCID)Sustainability Framework Report, 2003

AusCID CEO, Dennis O'Neill, presented the recently developed handbook entitled Sustainability Framework for the Future of Australia's Infrastructure at the Business Leaders Forum for Sustainable Development held in Sydney on the 29th of May, 2003 . This document forms the basis of a campaign by AusCID to incorporate sustainability aspects into infrastructure planning and development in all levels of government and among the Council's membership. The handbook is AusCID's contribution towards developing a new framework for the development of national infrastructure that takes account of its environmental and social, as well as economic aspects.

Download PDF | View Website

 

Australian Government online Resources

View Website

 

Example of State Government Commitment to Greening the Built Environment: Victoria , Australia

Development of more energy efficient buildings will ensure more sustainable use of our precious resources and will deliver economic, social and ecological benefits to the whole community. The challenge of producing energy efficient houses, apartments and public and commercial facilities will also provide industry with the opportunity to demonstrate creativity and innovation in building design, construction and operation.

Growth in the development of sustainable housing is predicted to inject up to $570 million and create over 1000 new jobs in Victoria alone. But it's not only good for the economy, consumers will also benefit; with greater access to more comfortable homes, reduced energy bills, and assurance they will be helping to protect our environment.

View Website

Australian Federal Government Sustainable Cities Programme

The Sustainable Cities programme is a new urban environment initiative, aimed to make Australian cities and towns cleaner and more sustainable.

View Website

 

CSIRO's Magazine of Innovations in the Built Environment SOLVE

View Website

 

 

 

Greening the Built Environment: Further Reading

 

Birkeland, J ed, 2002, Design for Sustainability: A Sourcebook of Ecological Design Solutions, Earthscan, UK.  

Birkeland, J. 2003, "Beyond Zero Waste", Societies for a Sustainable Future, Third UKM-UC International Conference 14-15 April 2003, University of Canberra, ACT.

 

Browning, W (1997) A New View of Real Estate , speech delivered to the MITCenter for Real Estate in 1997. ( View Website )

 

McDonough W and M Braungart 2002, Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things, North Point Press, NY.

 

Mendler, F.S, Odell, W. (2000) The HOK Guidebook to Sustainable Design, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

 

O'Brien, M 2000, Making Better Environmental Decisions: An Alternative to Risk Assessment, The MIT Press, Cambridge MA.

 

Roaf, S, M Fuentes, and S Thomas 2003, Ecohouse 2: A Design Guide, Architectural Press, Burlington MA.

 

Romm, J. and Browingin, W. (1995) Greening the Building and the Bottom Line: Increasing Productivity Through Energy-Efficient Design. (View PDF|View Website)

 

Scheer, H 2004, The Solar Economy, Earthscan Publishers, London.

 

Wilson, A. et al (1998) Green Development: Integrating Ecological and Real Estate , Rocky Mountain Institute, John Wiley and Sons Inc.

 

 

References from the Book

1 Wilson , A., Uncapher, J., McManigal, L., Lovins, L. H., Cureton, M. and Browning, W. (1998) Green Development: Integrating Ecology and Real Estate, Rocky Mountain Institute/John Wiley & Sons, p6.

 

2 Ibid, p19.

 

3 A video summary is available through the PMM website.

 

4 A range of building schemes are described further in this chapter, under 'Rating

Schemes'.

 

5 Information taken from an article on the building in Home Power Magazine, The Hands-on Journal of Home Made Power, Issue 75.

 

6 Collis, B. (2002) Fields of Discovery: Australia 's CSIRO, Allen & Unwin, Sydney , p422.

 

7 Fletcher, K. (2003) 'How Green is thy City', Business London, Spring.

 

8 Statistics taken from Roodman, D. and Lenssen, N. (1995) A Building Revolution: How Ecology and Health Concerns Are Transforming Construction, Worldwatch Paper 124, Worldwatch Institute, Washington , DC .

 

9 Birkeland (2004) course notes for Greening the Built Environment, a professional

development short course available through Australian National University .

 

10 Over the past decade, the Listed Property Trust (LPT) sector has become an increasingly large component of the broader Australian Stock Exchange (ASX) share market indexes. Market capitalization of the sector has risen from AU$5 billion in 1992 to AU$45 billion in 2002.

 

11 Mays, S. (2003) Corporate Sustainability: An Investor Perspective: The Mays Report, prepared with BT Financial Group for the Department of Environment and Heritage, Australian Government, p29.

 

12 Pears, A. (2003) Planning Institute of Australia's Submission for Federal Government's Sustainable Cities 2025 Enquiry, Commonwealth of Australia, Ch 5.

 

13 Mendler, F. and Odell, W. (2000) The HOK Guidebook to Sustainable Design, John Wiley & Sons, Indianapolis , IN.

 

14 Collis, B. (2002) Fields of Discovery: Australia 's CSIRO, Allen & Unwin, Sydney , p411.

 

15 Price Waterhouse Coopers (2002) Innovation in the Australian Building and Construction Industry: Survey Report, prepared for the Australian Construction Industry Forum and the Department of Industry, Tourism and Resources, March.

 

16 Birkeland, J. (2002) Design for Sustainability: A Sourcebook of Integrated Eco-Logical Solutions, Earthscan, London .

 

17 Wilson , A., Uncapher, J., McManigal, L., Lovins, L. H., Cureton, M. and Browning, W. (1998) Green Development: Integrating Ecology and Real Estate, Rocky Mountain Institute/John Wiley & Sons, Ch 4.

 

18 Birkeland, J. (2002) Design for Sustainability: A Sourcebook of Integrated Eco-Logical Solutions, Earthscan, London .

 

19 Ibid.

 

20 AusCID (Australian Council for Infrastructure Development) (2003) Sustainability Framework for the future of Australia 's infrastructure, AusCID.

 

21 Ibid.

 

22 Refer to the proceedings of The DestiNY USA Environmental Design Charrette (April 2002 - Savannah Dhu Conference Center , Savannah , New York , p7).

 

23 Department of Sustainability and Environment (2003) Sustainability in the Built Environment Discussion Paper, Victorian Government, September, pii.

 

24 A number of key resource lists (books and online) are provided as an appendix in Mendler, F. and Odell, W. (2000) The HOK Guidebook to Sustainable Design, John Wiley & Sons, Indianapolis, IN.

 

25 More than 150 researchers and an alliance of 18 partner organizations are involved in and support the activities of the CRC for CI.

 

26 Personal communications with Alan Pears ( 21 March 2004 ).

 

27 The Education Modules are being developed by a team of young engineers and scientists supported by the Institution of Engineers Australia, through The Natural Edge Project.

 

28 Urban and Regional Land Corporation (URLC) AURORA development in Epping North - a joint initiative of the Centre for Design at RMIT University , Urban and Regional Land Corporation, and the Sustainable Energy Authority of Victoria.

 

29 Information about accessing the guide is available from the Royal Australian Institute of Architects and through the BDP website.

 

30 EcoSpecifier is a not-for-profit collaboration by RMIT University 's Centre for Design, and Natural Integrated Living Inc. The online database provides knowledge and training on best-practice sustainable materials and product specification and design.

 

31 Mendler, F. and Odell, W. (2000) The HOK Guidebook to Sustainable Design, John Wiley & Sons, Indianapolis , IN.

 

32 Ibid, pxiii.

 

33 Romm, R. and Browning, W. (1994) Greening the Building and the Bottom Line: Increasing Productivity Through Energy-Efficient Design, Rocky Mountain Institute, Colorado .

 

34 Wilson , A., Uncapher, J., McManigal, L., Lovins, L. H., Cureton, M. and Browning, W. (1998) Green Development: Integrating Ecology and Real Estate, Rocky Mountain Institute/John Wiley & Sons, p18.

 

35 Mays, S. (2003) Corporate Sustainability: An Investor Perspective: The Mays Report, prepared with BT Financial Group for the Department of Environment and Heritage, Australian Government, p37. General Property Trust (GPT) is Australia 's largest diversified property trust, owning, developing and managing a AU$6.8 billion portfolio of retail, office, hotel and industrial properties throughout Australia .

 

36 For example direct observation, target market analysis, visual preference surveys, the 'let's talk' approach, focus groups and 'creative feasibility', as described in Wilson, A., Uncapher, J., McManigal, L., Lovins, L. H., Cureton, M. and Browning, W. (1998) Green Development: Integrating Ecology and Real Estate, Rocky Mountain Institute/John Wiley & Sons, p121.

 

37 Millicer, H. (2003) 'Acting Accordingly: Tenants at 60L Have Signed a Most Unusual Occupancy Agreement', an article in a supplement for Australian Conservation Foundation's Habitat magazine, ACF, February.

 

38 Information contained in the supplement for Australian Conservation Foundation's

Habitat magazine (February 2003 edition). See also the Australian Conservation Foundation and 60L building design website.

 

39 Information obtained from the UK Action Energy group the UK BedZED website, and the Zedfactory's website. Information about other 'ZED projects' can also be found at the Zed Factory's website.

 

40 Even though most developed countries have had such requirements for many years. A history of rating schemes in Australia can be found in Pears, A. (2003) Planning Institute of Australia 's Submission for Federal Government's Sustainable Cities 2025 Enquiry, Commonwealth of Australia, Ch 5.

 

41 The Commonwealth Department of Environment and Heritage has produced the

National Australian Building Environmental Rating System, described within the

department's website.

 

42 The NSW Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Natural Resources has developed 'BASIX', the Building Sustainability Index, described in the department's website.

 

43 CSIRO has developed the Life Cycle House Energy Estimator (see CSIRO's website for a summary of the tool).

 

44 The Green Building Council of Australia has developed the Green Star - Office Design tool to evaluate the environmental potential of the design of commercial office buildings (base building construction or refurbishment). GBCA intends that Green Star will have rating tools for different phases of the building life cycle (design, fit-out and operation) and for different building classes (office, retail, industrial, residential, etc.). See the Council's website for more details.

 

45 Two examples include the engineering consultancy firm Arup's Sustainable Project Appraisal Routine called SPeARTM (see the Arup website), and the World Travel & Tourism Council's GREEN GLOBE 21 Design and Construct Standard for benchmarking and certification (see the Greenglobe21 website).

 

46 ECOS (2004) Greener Buildings at the Touch of a Button, CSIRO Publishing, Issue 118, January-March, p6.

 

47 Mays, S. (2003) Corporate Sustainability: An Investor Perspective: The Mays Report, prepared with BT Financial Group for the Department of Environment and Heritage, Australian Government.

 

48 Birkeland, J. (2002) Design for Sustainability: A Sourcebook of Integrated Eco-Logical Solutions, Earthscan, London .

 

49 Birkeland (2004) course notes for Greening the Built Environment, a professional

development short course available through Australian National University .

 

50 Amory Lovins quoted in Wilson, A., Uncapher, J., McManigal, L., Lovins, L. H., Cureton, M. and Browning, W. (1998) Green Development: Integrating Ecology and Real Estate, Rocky Mountain Institute/John Wiley & Sons, p174.

 

51 William McDonough, adapted from a speech at the Cathedral of St John the Divine, New York City , February 1993, cited in ibid, p46.

 

52 Neal Payton, CHK Architects and Planners, from the AIA/ Nathan Cummings Foundation Roundtables, which were held to identify barriers to green architecture, 1992-1993, in ibid, p55.

 

53 Alexander, C., Ishikawa, S. and Silverstein, M. (1977) A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction, prepared with Jacobson, M., Fiksdahl-King, I. and Angel, S., Oxford University Press, Oxford ; Alexander, C. (1979) The Timeless Way of Building, Oxford University Press, Oxford .

 

54 Alexander, C., Ishikawa, S. and Silverstein, M. (1977) A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction, prepared with Jacobson, M., Fiksdahl-King, I. and Angel, S., Oxford University Press, Oxford , pxii.

 

55 Ibid, pxiii.

 

56 McDonough, W. and Partners (1992) The Hannover Principles: Design for Sustainability, Prepared for EXPO 2000, The World's Fair, Hannover, Germany.

 

57 For a summary of design principles, see Roaf, S., Fuentes, M. and Thomas, S. (2003) Ecohouse 2: A Design Guide, Architectural Press, Elsevier, Oxford UK . For Australian examples, see Baggs, S. and Baggs, J. (1996) The Healthy House: Creating a Safe, Healthy and Environmentally Friendly Home, HarperCollins, Sydney. See also Pearson, D. (1998) The New Natural House Book, HarperCollins, Sydney. For retrofits, see Mobbs, M. (1998) Sustainable House, A Choice Book, Marrickvill, NSW.

 

58 Birkeland, J. (1995) Rethinking Pollution, Turning Growth into ESD: Economically, EIA National Conference, Brisbane , 26-27 October; Romm, J. (1999) Cool Companies: How the Best Businesses Boost Profits and Productivity by Cutting

Greenhouse-Gas Emissions, Island Press, Washington , DC .

 

59 Birkeland, J. (2002) Design for Sustainability: A Sourcebook of Integrated Eco-Logical Solutions, Earthscan, London .

 

60 For more information on the solar core concept, see Birkeland's sustainable systems website ('sustainable systems'). This summary of the concept was provided by Dr Birkeland to the editorial team (April 2004).

 

61 Orr, D. (1994) Earth In Mind, Island Press, Washington , DC , Ch 2.

 

62 Koelman, O. (2004) Bio-Inspired Design: Ideas, Wisdom, and Applications from Nature, RMI Green Development Services publication, Rocky Mountain Institute, Colorado . Available through RMI's website.

 

63 Birkeland, J. (2002) Design for Sustainability: A Sourcebook of Integrated Eco-Logical Solutions, Earthscan, London .

 

64 Personal communication with Alan Pears (March 2004).

 

65 Information obtained from Rocky Mountain Institute - Green Developments 2.0 CDROM, produced by Sunnywood Designs (Companion CD to Wilson, A., Uncapher, J., McManigal, L., Lovins, L. H., Cureton, M. and Browning, W. (1998) Green Development: Integrating Ecology and Real Estate, Rocky Mountain Institute/John Wiley & Sons).

 

66 Photo courtesy of ZplusPartners - see their website for an article on the development.

 

67 Information obtained from a review by Lindsay Johnston, available through Melbourne City Council's website.

 

68 Melbourne  City Council (2003) CH2 Media Release: Council on Track for New Standard in Green D, Melbourne  City Council, August.